The Self in Brain Research

This essay is divided into three sections. The first one describes the process in which science progresses and why, based on the rules of this model, there has been a shift from psychoanalysis to behaviorism and from that school of thought to neuroscience. The second section compares the treatments derived from these three perspectives in terms of effect size, relapse, and long-term outcomes. The last division proposes a new paradigm shift, grounded in the pros and cons of each field, towards neuropsychoanalysis. As mentioned before, the first focus of this paper will be to describe the cycles, which elucidate how science develops throughout time, proposed by the physicist and historian Thomas Kuhn. He made a notable contribution in philosophy of science when he introduced the concept of paradigm shifts in his book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. This notion could be summarized as a cycle that science goes through composed of five steps: normal science, model drift, model cris…

Gods of Our Fathers: The United States of Enlightenment

Why should we care what the Founding Fathers believed, or did not believe, about religion? They went to such great trouble to insulate faith from politics, and took such care to keep their own convictions private, that it would scarcely matter if it could now be proved that, say, George Washington was a secret Baptist. The ancestor of the American Revolution was the English Revolution of the 1640s, whose leaders and spokesmen were certainly Protestant fundamentalists, but that did not bind the Framers and cannot be said to bind us, either. Indeed, the established Protestants church in Britain was one of the models which can be quite sure the signatories of 1776 were determined to avoid emulating.
     Moreover, the eighteenth-century scholars and gentlemen who gave us the U. S. Constitution were in a relative state of innocence respecting knowledge of the cosmos, the Earth, and the psyche, of the sort that has revolutionized the modern argument over faith. Charles Darwin was born …

Science and Pseudoscience in Clinical Psychology

There are two main branches ofpsychology. Individuals can either conduct research or apply it. The former, consists of sub-branches that explore a specific portion of behavior or cognition. For example, bio-psychologists study the relationship between biology and behavior (i.e. how enzymes help modulate movement), cognitive psychologists explore how information is processed (i.e. how a cognitive bias can influence decision-making). The latter is in charge of applying said information. For example, a cognitive psychologist might work on creating tests that cannot produce cognitive biases in an individual or a clinical psychologist can provide a type of therapy that has empirical support. Nevertheless, it seems that there is a disconnection between psychologists who conduct research and those who apply it. The purpose of this essay is to focus on this separation from a clin